Functions for measuring networks and returning a numeric vector or value. Note that all node_ and tie_ measures return a single vector so that they can be added directly to graph objects. network_ measures return one or, in some cases of two-mode measures, two values.

network_density() network_components() network_cohesion() network_adhesion() network_diameter() network_length()

Measures of network cohesion or connectedness

node_betweenness() node_induced() node_flow() tie_betweenness() network_betweenness()

Measures of betweenness-like centrality and centralisation

node_closeness() node_reach() node_harmonic() node_information() tie_closeness() network_closeness() network_reach() network_harmonic()

Measures of closeness-like centrality and centralisation

node_degree() node_deg() node_outdegree() node_indegree() node_multidegree() node_posneg() tie_degree() network_degree() network_outdegree() network_indegree()

Measures of degree-like centrality and centralisation

node_eigenvector() node_power() node_alpha() node_pagerank() tie_eigenvector() network_eigenvector()

Measures of eigenvector-like centrality and centralisation

network_reciprocity() node_reciprocity() network_transitivity() node_transitivity() network_equivalency() network_congruency()

Measures of network closure

node_bridges() node_redundancy() node_effsize() node_efficiency() node_constraint() node_hierarchy() node_eccentricity() node_neighbours_degree() tie_cohesion()

Measures of structural holes

network_richness() node_richness() network_diversity() node_diversity() network_heterophily() node_heterophily() network_assortativity() network_spatial()

Measures of network diversity

network_core() network_richclub() network_factions() network_modularity() network_smallworld() network_scalefree() network_balance()

Measures of network topological features

network_change() network_stability()

Measures of network change

over_waves() over_time()

Helper functions for measuring over splits of networks

network_connectedness() network_efficiency() network_upperbound()

Graph theoretic dimensions of hierarchy

network_transmissibility() network_infection_length() network_reproduction() network_immunity() network_hazard()

Measures of network diffusion

node_adoption_time() node_adopter() node_thresholds() node_infection_length() node_exposure()

Measures of nodes in a diffusion


Functions for calculating subgraphs in multimodal networks. These functions have an additional dimension than node_ and network_ measures and marks that capture the different motifs surveyed.

node_brokerage_census() network_brokerage_census() node_brokering_activity() node_brokering_exclusivity() node_brokering()

Censuses of brokerage motifs

network_dyad_census() network_triad_census() network_mixed_census()

Censuses of motifs at the network level

node_tie_census() node_triad_census() node_quad_census() node_path_census()

Censuses of nodes' motifs


Functions for identifying community, cluster, or class memberships in partitions within multimodal networks. They return integer vectors the length of the nodes in the network.

node_optimal() node_kernighanlin() node_edge_betweenness() node_fast_greedy() node_leading_eigen() node_walktrap() node_infomap() node_spinglass() node_fluid() node_louvain() node_leiden()

Community partitioning algorithms

node_components() node_weak_components() node_strong_components()

Component partitioning algorithms

node_equivalence() node_structural_equivalence() node_regular_equivalence() node_automorphic_equivalence()

Equivalence clustering algorithms

node_core() node_coreness()

Core-periphery clustering algorithms


Clique partitioning algorithms


Functions for modelling multimodal networks:

test_random() test_permutation() test_gof()

Conditional uniform graph and permutation tests


Linear and logistic regression for network data

cluster_hierarchical() cluster_concor()

Methods for equivalence clustering

k_strict() k_elbow() k_silhouette()

Methods for selecting clusters


The package contains multimodal, multilevel, and multiplex network data, used in the book Multimodal Political Networks (prefixed with mpn_).


Multimodal (3) Bristol protest events, 1990-2002 (Diani and Bison 2004)

mpn_cow_trade mpn_cow_igo

One-mode interstate trade relations and two-mode state membership in IGOs (COW)


One-mode Mexican power elite database (Knoke 1990)

mpn_elite_usa_advice mpn_elite_usa_money

Two-mode and three-mode American power elite database (Domhoff 2016)

mpn_IT_1990 mpn_IT_1990 mpn_IT_2008 mpn_DE_1990 mpn_DE_2008 mpn_UK_1990 mpn_UK_2008

Two-mode European Values Survey, 1990 and 2008 (EVS 2020)


One-mode EU policy influence network, June 2004 (Christopoulos 2006)

mpn_DemSxP mpn_RepSxP mpn_OverSxP

Two-mode 112th Congress Senate Voting (Knoke et al. 2021)